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    Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
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    Circulating long non-coding RNA colon cancer-associated transcript 2 protected by exosome as a potential biomarker for colorectal cancer 
    Lili Wanga, Weili Duanb, Suzhen Yanb, Yujiao Xieb, Chuanxin Wangb,
    a Department of Clinical Laboratory, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250012, China
    b Department of Clinical Laboratory, The second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250033, China
    Colorectal cancer
    Long non-coding RNA
    Colon cancer-associated transcript 2
    Background: Colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2) plays a crucial role in several cancers. However, the clinical significance of circulating CCAT2 Doxorubicin in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not previously been eluci-dated. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the potential role of CCAT2 and its clinical significance of circulating expression level in CRC.
    Methods: We detected the expression of CCAT2 in 75 pairs of tumorous and adjacent non-tumorous tissues derived from CRC patients by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The serum levels of CCAT2 expression were detected in an independent cohort of healthy controls and CRC patients. We analyzed the relationship between CCAT2 levels in serum and clinicopathological features of CRC patients. We also compared CCAT2 levels in paired pre-operative and post-operative serum samples. Furthermore, the existence of serum CCAT2 in exosomes was investigated.
    Results: The levels of CCAT2 expression were significantly over-expressed in tumor tissues (p < 0.05) com-pared to adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Higher CCAT2 expression was associated with advanced CRC patients. Moreover, the serum levels of CCAT2 expression were significantly over-expressed in CRC patients (p < 0.05) compared to those in healthy subjects. In addition, the CCAT2 levels were significantly decreased in post-op-erative samples than those in pre-operative ones (P = 0.01). We also found that CCAT2 expression was up-regulated in CRC exosomes (P < 0.001) and no significant differences of CCAT2 levels were found between in serum and in exosomes.
    Conclusions: Our data indicate that circulating CCAT2 which might protected by exosomes can serve as a novel potential predictor in CRC.
    1. Introduction
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common lethal cancers worldwide with over 1.2 million new diagnosed cases annually [1]. Despite the significant improvements in CRC screening and treatment strategies such as surgery and standard adjuvant chemotherapy, the poor prognosis remains significant [2]. It has been showed that the survival of CRC patients is highly stage-based, with about 90% for stage I and nearly 25% for stage Ⅱ [3,4]. Therefore, early detection is of particular significance to improve the overall survival rate of CRC pa-tients. The current methods, such as fiber-optic colonoscopy, fecal oc-cult blood testing and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) examination, still have some limitations because of the invasiveness, low sensitivity and specificity. The identification of novel and reliable genetic