MF498 br Statistical analysis br Data were
2.3. Statistical analysis
Data were analyzed by Sigma Plot version 12.5. Data was sum-marized as mean ± SD. Diﬀerences between groups were analyzed by (Kruskal-Wallis test) and (Shapiro-Wilktest) and t-test. Post-hoc testing was performed by the Tukey test to compare the diﬀerence among the groups. Simple linear correlation (Pearson correlation coeﬃcient test)
(r) was also done to test for linear relations between Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 and other variables. P-value is considered significant if < 0.05. Receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC curves) were utilized to assess diagnostic performance of all studied parameters.
3.1. Biochemical characteristics of the studied subject
Demographic and clinico-pathological variables of all groups of the study are: Group-1 was composed of 12 females (24%) and 38 males (76%). The history of smoking variable was significantly higher in malignant patients group (p = 0.002). The frequencies of bilharzia in patients with malignant group were (36%). Histopathologic examina-tion of MF498 carcinoma tissues revealed: transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in 36 cases (72%) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in 14 cases (28%). Regarding the tumor stage, the frequencies of non-muscle (Ta-T1&T2) – and muscle-invasive tumors (T3-T4) were 58% and 42%, respectively. Regarding tumor grade, those frequencies of G1, G2 were 50%, also G3, were, 50%. Group-2 was composed of 10 females (20%) and 40 males (80%). The history of smoking variable was 60% in be-nign group patients. The frequencies of bilharzia in benign group pa-tients were (20%). Group-3 was composed of 6 females (12%) and 44 males (88%). There is no history of smoking or bilharzia infection.
3.2. Blood and urine protein levels of Apo-A1 and Apo-A2
Blood and urine protein levels of Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 assessed by total protein normalization ratio in the all studied groups are shown in Table 1 and Figs. 1–4. Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 expression in urine of cancer patients (malignant group) showing high significant elevation in com-parison to normal (control) and benign groups. Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 expression in blood of cancer patients (malignant group) showing no significant diﬀerence from normal (control).
3.3. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves
Receiver operating characteristics curves were carried out to assess the diagnostic performance of Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 and their Sensitivity (true positive fraction) and Specificity (false positive fraction (Table 2) (Figs. 5 and 6)).
Table 3 showed correlation of urinary levels of Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 with their corresponding blood levels and also correlation of urinary levels of Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 with laboratory data of all malignant
Blood and urine levels of Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 in all groups of the study assessed by western blot.
Parameter Malignant group Benign group Normal group p- value
a Significant from control.
b Significant from benign group.
malignant benign normal
Fig. 1. Urinary protein levels of Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 in groups of the study by western blot. * denotes significant p versus control group, # denotes significant p versus benign bladder disorders group. Y axis represents a ratio between target protein levels and total protein level.
malignant benign normal
Fig. 2. Blood protein levels of Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 in groups of the study by western blot. * denotes significant p versus control group, # denotes significant p versus benign bladder disorders group. Y axis represents a ratio between target protein levels and total protein level.
group. There was no correlation between Apo-A1or Apo-A2 urine levels and their corresponding blood levels. Also there was no correlation between Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 urinary levels and other laboratory data using Pearson correlation.
Table 4 showed the correlation between urinary levels of Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 and diﬀerent clinic-pathological parameters in bladder cancer (malignant) group.
There is still a major need for reliable and specific biomarker for the early diagnosis of bladder cancer. Thus, noninvasive urine cytology may be of a good use in the clinic as a cystoscopy assistant; however, it's low sensitivity as a drawback (6). Here, a brand new noninvasive, label-free technique with higher sensitivity for use with urine is introduced (Yosef et al., 2017).
Proteomics has been adequately utilized for human-based in-vestigations from claiming disease, where it has been a profitable ap-proach for distinguishing diseases even more generating candidate biomarkers to identify pathological state (Sotillo et al., 2015).